Since Antiquity in Europe there was an assumption that the skin may not be ideal by itself. In order to fit the ideal of beauty, in the face of mandatory would cause that or other cosmetic and make-up.
A scene from the movie «Marie Antoinette»
The history of makeup and cosmetics
In fact, the story familiar to us today of the Foundation in some way began in the days of Ancient Greece.
In Ancient Egypt and the East, for example, in Persia, means for changing the color of the skin is not known. These peoples were considered pretty natural dark complexion. Not trying to avoid the ancient Egyptians and the sun. But in Antiquity (in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome) it was completely the opposite.
In Ancient Greece it was considered beautiful white skin, like goddesses,
after all, the goddess Hera was described as «white-handed»
In Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome it was believed that the ideal skin is white without any tan. And Greek women, Roman women were hiding from the bright sunlight and tried to lighten the skin with cosmetics.
The statue of the goddess Hera — wife of Zeus
The ancient Greek poet Homer described as «white-handed» goddess
The love of perfect white skin originated in Ancient Greece and linked to the description of ancient Greek goddesses. The gods and goddesses, according to Greek mythology, was Golden-haired and white skin. And people of Ancient Greece attempted to lighten hair, sprinkling them with flour and also to make their skin more pale.
White lead in the history of makeup
In the ancient Greek city of Athens begins the story of such cosmetic products intended for skin lightening, as carussa – white lead. And, in General, poisonous white lead to whiten the skin be used in Europe until the XIX century. After all, this cosmetic product has been very effective.
Zeus and Hera
Cameo the I century ad.
After applying white lead skin had acquired a wonderful pure white color. The only drawback, if you started to use cerussi, you will need more and more of this tool, as it spoils the skin. And to mask emerging from the use of white lead flaws of the facial skin, ladies used white lead in large quantities. Until the nineteenth century about the dangers of lead for health in Europe nothing was known.
Carossa — lead bleached, which appeared in ancient Athens
A method of manufacturing cerussi also remained practically unchanged since the days of Ancient Greece. And in Ancient Greece, white lead was made in the following way:
1. In the ceramic vessel was placed a lead with a small amount of vinegar
2. About 10 days later opened the container and removed formed during this time, the layer of rust
3. This operation is repeated several times until all the lead was not dissolved
4. Cleaning off the rust washed into powder and ovarial water
5. In the end, at the bottom of the vessel after cooking, it turned out white precipitate is white lead
There is a theory that in Ancient Greece the idea of using lead for white has arisen due to the extraction of silver. Near Athens in ancient times were the mines, where silver was mined, and the waste from this production was the mountains of white lead pigment.
Hera, in a carriage pulled by peacocks
Painting of the XIX century.
However, in Ancient Greece and in Ancient Rome women, though clarified by the face, but tried to stick to measures. The amount of white on the face of the noble matron was supposed to be minimal, while the bright paint was allowed only women of easy virtue.
Leeches behind the ear, is the best cosmetic product of the middle Ages,
paleness of the face — guaranteed
In the Middle ages a kind of ideal of beauty becomes the virgin Mary. Emerging ideas about the unearthly pallor of her skin – «pale virgin» skin. Ideas about what young girls who have no children, the skin is lighter than the older women.
The painter Rogier van der Weyden
Portrait of a lady, XV.
In parallel, emerging views, and that the skin of the aristocrats, unlike the peasant, should be pale and without a tan. Indeed, in contrast to dark-skinned peasant women who work in the field under the scorching sun, aristocrat are not engaged in heavy physical labor.
Joan of arc
However, the cosmetics, including white lead, the Church was not encouraged. In the Middle ages pale skin was achieved by avoiding sunlight and using leeches, which were put behind the ear.
The most popular cosmetic of the XVI century «Venetian ceruse» — the most «quality» whitewash with a higher lead content
In the Renaissance, as in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, it was believed that makeup should be as natural as possible. However, already in the XVI century, when the fashion starts to dictate the Venice white lead become very popular among noble ladies. While the best white lead are considered «Venetian ceruse» which was also called the «Spirit of Saturn». The advantage of «Venetian white» was the fact that they contained a much higher amount of lead than white from other manufacturers.
The Venetian painter Titian
Portrait of Eleonora Gonzaga, XVI century
«Venetian ceruse» very tightly covered with the skin and gave it a satin smoothness. However, over time, the skin under the effect of lead became grayish-yellow, and wrinkled. But the aristocrat of that time did not notice the relationship between the use of cosmetics and the deterioration of the skin. The newly formed faults again disguised lead white. Had a vicious circle, it is highly beneficial for traders whitewash.
Catherine De Medici
In addition to white, in order to remove facial freckles and pigmentation spots, in the Renaissance also used a mixture of mercury with arsenic and musk. For example, a poisonous mixture for removing age spots from the skin used by the French Queen originally from Italy, Catherine de Medici.
English Queen Elizabeth I
The face as mask «doll» makeup XVII-XVIII centuries.
XVII-XVIII centuries in European history can easily be called a time of the domination of white and blush. About moderation at this time could not go and speeches. In fashion luxury and almost theatrical makeup. The faces of court ladies and gentlemen like the faces of porcelain dolls. While white face was covered in several layers. And to emphasize the whiteness of the face was scarlet blush and lipstick and traced the blue veins and black faux moles – flies.
Tried to imitate the aristocratic and simple townswoman. However, because of not having enough money for the expensive white lead to whiten the skin they used a simple means – ointment, composed of peas, chickpeas, almonds, barley, horseradish seeds, and milk. All very natural and harmless. The effect was almost not noticeable, but the skin of the cities in the XVII-XVIII centuries looked much better and healthier than aristocratic.
A scene from the movie «Marie Antoinette»
In the XIX century ladies of high society almost cease to use decorative cosmetics, but the actress and singer continued to use white. And even in the early twentieth century in Europe, selling powder on the basis of the same unsafe lead.
Not only in Europe, but in Asia it was considered beautiful white face
In addition to European white complexion was considered incredibly beautiful and in Asia – in China, Korea and Japan. Possess the nature of skin with a yellowish tinge, Asians mercilessly tried to make their faces as white in color.
Artist Toshikata Mizuno (1866-1908)
And in China, and in Japan was known for white lead. But more often in Asian countries on the face caused harmless rice powder. It is believed that rice powder was invented in Ancient China. For its production used the rice grain, which was milled into flour.
Artist Toshikata Mizuno (1866-1908)
White lead was also initially appeared in China, probably during the reign of the Shang dynasty (1600-1027 BC). And already from China came to Japan, where they were used originally only the ladies of the court, and around the XVI century, all the other women.
China – the birthplace of pearl powder
Also in Ancient China appeared and pearl powder. Time somewhere around 320. Produced such a powder from crushed pearls, and was originally used for medical purposes. In traditional Chinese medicine it was believed that the pearl powder reduces the impact of harmful sun rays and prevents the skin pigmentation. In principle, the sages of ancient China about the healing properties of pearl powder and modern scientists agree.
A scene from the movie «memoirs of a geisha»
In Korea in ancient times in order to give the skin a singing poet color «like white Jasper» was used in a very poetic way – the droppings of a Nightingale. Nightingale droppings mixed with flour, and thus was brightening powder. This whitening solution also used by the Japanese.
A scene from the movie «memoirs of a geisha»
The history of makeup and cosmetics in the twentieth century
In the twentieth century, the fashion for white faces eroding. A revolution made in the 1920 s, Coco Chanel, because she introduced the fashion for tanning. Now the fashion of the twentieth century dark tanned skin, not pale white like it was for many centuries of European history.
The twentieth century – the fashion for a tan
In the first half of the twentieth century, popular cosmetics, forcing white becomes powder. Powder is a cosmetic powder used to give the facial skin a specific color. Already in the 1930-ies in Europe and the United States produced about three thousand varieties of powders with a variety of shades – from beige and pink to trendy colors of tan. And the first «compact» powder with powder puff for the application of the 1920-ies.
A little radiation and your skin will Shine
In the early twentieth century in addition to the usual powder, and powder with Shine effect. Such powder can be bought in London and Paris. In London in 1917, the firm was founded Radior. She was selling cosmetics (face powder, night cream, blush), composed of the radioactive element radium, which opened in 1898, Marie and Pierre Curie. However, his insecurity as before with lead, nothing was known. Cosmetics with radium in the early twentieth century you could buy in the most famous Department store in London – Harrods.
And in Paris in 1933, there was firm Tho-Radia, which was also sold powder, blush, toothpaste, night cream and radiance effect. In the advertising of cosmetics from the company Tho-Radia was said about the «scientific approach to beauty». And one of the founders of the company were listed Alfred Curie, who, as it turned out, had no relation to Marie and Pierre Curie. Yes, and perhaps did not exist in reality, but was invented merely as a good marketing ploy.
Part of modern cosmetic products radium and thorium are not included as prohibited in Europe for use in cosmetics lead, but the scientific approach, if you believe the advertising, present.
The composition of the powders today include substances such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, kaolin (white clay), talc (a white mineral powder), dyes, both natural and artificial, and the perfume to give a pleasant smell.
«Father» Foundation – Max Factor
The first Foundation also appears at the beginning of the twentieth century – in 1914. Its inventor was Max Factor. He invented a tonal Foundation for the actors as a more convenient cosmetic tools than previously used in theatrical makeup pencil based on fat. Invented by max Factor Foundation its texture was like a cream. And on the faces of the actors on the screen this cream looked natural, unlike the previously used the pencil with the paint, which created the effect of the mask.
In 1937, Max Factor produces the tonal basis for all. It was a cream powder which was applied on the face with a wet sponge.
To the 1960s in Europe produced a variety of tonal framework, including the color of tan. And in the early twenty-first-appear Foundation, comprising silicone, which makes their presence on the face is almost invisible.
Today, the Foundation produced in various forms – powder, liquid, creamy and even in the form of sprays. While the decorative function of Foundation (to hide imperfections) are increasingly trying to combine care with cosmetics.
BB-CC-DD — creams – Foundation and skin care
So, for example, there was a BB cream. Its name means Blemish Balm «healing balm». This product protects and repairs the skin, and can serve as a good base for makeup. A similar product is the CC cream — Color Control (eng. «color control»). This cream nourishes and moisturizes the skin and evens its tone.
Another cream — DD cream (Daily Defense from the English. «daily defense»). It is called hybrids BB cream and CC cream, plus it has sunscreen. The appearance of sunscreens is the trend in recent decades. It is exactly the same as in the nineteenth century had proven the dangers of lead in our days everyone knows about the dangers of sunburn to the skin. Excessive sun exposure or frequent tanning can lead to skin cancer, scientists say.
So, it is possible, we are waiting for another round to make history and return to the trend of pallor.